Posted in Unit 3, Unit 53- 2D & Stop Motion Animation

2D Film Research

Princess and the Frog.

Princess and the frog was made using hand drawn animation- similar to their classic films which used cell animation.

Cell animation was made on clear sheets of plastic, with the background and character on separate sheets so everything wouldn’t have to be constantly redrawn for each frame of animation.



Posted in Unit 3, Unit 53- 2D & Stop Motion Animation

Stop Motion Evaluation

My idea for the animation was a part of the ‘Animated Alphabet’ in which I had the letter ‘Z’. I enjoy the Legend of Zelda series and when I realised that I had props that I could use to link it to the project, I was inspired and made it.

Originally, I had a lot more fighting in my scenes but I had to cut it down and couldn’t have the scenes that I had in my storyboards as they were too long and complicated.

I’m happy with the props I used as I feel the animation turned out well even if it did take a very long time and it was frustrating that I couldn’t do this the way I had planned it out.

The colour scheme is what I expected as they all are similar and are from the same series so the props and figures I used equally match each other in sense of style and theme.

The project took a while to plan as I wasn’t sure what I was doing, but then I was able to film everything in a day, as well as put it all into an actual animation in a day which made it a lot easier as it was getting nearer to when it had to be due in. However, I could have used my time more efficiently by planning it quicker, which would have been helpful if I had more help and advice with what to do for it.

The technique of taking the pictures and the focus on the props was easy to learn and worked really well for this project. Since it was a matter of taking pictures and putting them into Premier Pro, it was fairly simple and I was glad since I didn’t know much about the program.

My peers thought my animation was good and that I was able to do it well, especially considering we were only allowed to make the animation 5 seconds long.

I think my animation works well for what it is, but if I were to do it again, I would like to make the badges more projectile like I had originally planned in my storyboard.

Posted in Unit 3, Unit 53- 2D & Stop Motion Animation

2D Evaluation

My idea for the animation was largely inspired by how I felt at the time when we were asked to come up with ideas for our project. It was inspired by how I felt powerless and paranoid with my ideas, and the idea suddenly came to me and I knew I needed to portray it for my project.

The original idea didn’t have the uplifting ending that it does in the final project, but as the theme was “A Sense Of Hope”- I thought it was necessary to include the happy fate of the character.

I think the overall design of the animation isn’t too bad, but if I had more time I would have made the animation smoother and more detailed if I had a chance to recreate it.

I’m fairly happy with the materials I’ve chosen to use, but it was fairly tedious and I would opt to do the animation digitally so I wouldn’t have to remake the character and scene each time I drew a frame.

The colour scheme is exactly what I expected as I wanted little to no colour scheme to show the sombre theme of the animation, before using colour exclusively at the end to show the theme changing for the better.

The project did take fairly long to do because of the method I was using, I would use my time more effectively by starting it much sooner, but I did get it in on time.

I did a survey with 15 of my peers to see what they thought of my animation, here are the results-

The views of my peers are a fairly positive as 93.4% of people enjoyed my animation.

46.7% of people feel like I portrayed ‘A Sense of Hope’ in my animation.

Most people understood the message of depression and how things will get better.

93.3% feel that the soundtrack suited my animation well, at least to some extent.

However, 66.7% of people felt that my animation was too short.

It was a split whether or not the FPS should be higher with 60% believing that it’s fine how it is, and 40% saying that it should be higher so it’s smoother.

I was given a lot of recommendations for how to make my animation better such as outlining my drawings in pen; making the animation digitally and adding frames to my animation to make it smoother and longer- which would express the storyline better. If I were to do this again, I would take this advice into account and make my animations longer so that I could express what I want to easier.

Posted in Unit 3, Unit 53- 2D & Stop Motion Animation

Stop-Motion Animation Treatment

The name of my project is ‘Animated Alphabet’- in which I’m doing the letter ‘Z’. It will be a stop-motion animation using objects such as figurines and badges. It will be 5 seconds long- as that is our time limit for this project.

I don’t have a specific audience for my animation, but it will be suitable for everyone to view it. People who enjoy stop-motion and the Legend Of Zelda series may enjoy my animation as that is what I’m using to make my animation.

In my animation, I will have badges used as weapons in a fight between two characters, with the badges eventually forming a ‘Z’ shape.

I’ll be using regular lighting so that the figures can be seen well, as well as close ups for an action scene part in my work.

The audio that will be used in my animation will be made by me and have an upbeat intense tune to make the fight scene interesting- or maybe a sort of rendition of a Legend of Zelda song.

I’ve chosen this idea because I like the figurines and thought it would be interesting to have the badges moving around- almost like a snake. I will need to learn to be patient and careful not to move any of the props while making this animation so that it will remain smooth and make for a good stop-motion animation.

I didn’t do any primary research as I didn’t need to since I just needed to make the letter ‘Z’ in any way that I wanted to. I did however do a little secondary research to see other ideas for alphabets and what people did for each letter.

For this project, I’ll need a camera to take the photos on, figurines to have as the ‘characters’ in the animation as well as the badges for the projectile weapons.

Problems I may encounter might be how the projectile weapons will work without me physically holding and moving them around, which may not look as good in the final piece. To overcome this, I could attach them to string and slowly move them along.

I’m aware this series is not my own and I do not own the characters, which would prevent me from making money from the animation if it was being made professionally with the intend to make money from it.

Some of the potential costs may be getting a good camera and tripod to film the animation on, as well as the figurines and badges- which would obviously be a lot easier to buy and be less costly.

We have two weeks to make this animation, and I’ve allowed myself the time to make the animation by mapping out the storyboard early on so that I have much more time to make the animation which allows me more room for error in filming if it should arise.


Posted in Unit 3, Unit 53- 2D & Stop Motion Animation

2D Animation Treatment

My project is namedDepression Is A Beast’ and is going to be a 2D animation. We have to make it within a few weeks- with the animation has to be under 90 seconds as that is our time limit with the rating being PG so that it is suitable for viewing by mostly anyone. My animation will be about 30 seconds long once it is all finished, and will be aimed at teenagers and upwards as I feel they could understand the issue that my animation is trying to show, rather than if children were to watch it.

In my animation, I took on the idea of depression taking over you; with it beginning with a girl slowly walking along, her hair, clothes and any identifiable things about her slowly falling away as she walks. As she continues walking, a black mass beginning to restrict her movement- almost like when chewing gum is stuck to your shoe when she realises that the mass is slowly pulling her in. She struggles to escape, reaching out for help as it consumes her entirely. After a few moments of silence, she breaks out of the mass, beginning to run away as the mass forms hands, struggling to keep her within its grasp as she runs away, trailing colours and happiness behind her. At the last moments of the animation, we see the black mass, as a hand rises out from it- showing that while she may have gotten better now, the mass (depression) may remain.

I purposely left the character in my story to have not much known about her so that all who are watching can hopefully relate more to her, able to put themselves in her shoes. However, her name is Harper Andrews; is 15 and has no set race.

There is little to no visual elements in my animation, with the camera mostly staying in a wide shot to make the character look small in a large space, but there are close ups to make the scene slightly tense, with a behind and low shot at the end of the animation to once again look small.

The audio in my animation is eerie and slightly creepy music in the beginning as the depression takes over her before using upbeat and triumphant music after she began to get better from the bout of depression.

I think my idea will make a good animation as no one really talks about mental health and depression, and for it to be taken seriously- needs to be talked about more and show that other people know what they are going through.

My primary research for my idea is that I myself have gone through this feeling myself, feeling taken over by depression and not being anything to do anything about it even though I may try my hardest to stop it. I have also seen other descriptions online that back up my idea of this feeling and depression being represented in this way as my secondary research

To make my animation, I would need a graphics tablet or paper and pencil to be able to draw the cells of the animation and a software such as Adobe Animate to put it together.

Problems I might encounter may be keeping the frames of the animation consistent and smooth- especially if I’m drawing it with paper and pencil as it is extremely difficult to keep those kinds of drawings the same to make a smooth animation.

As my animation project is being submitted for a competition, I need to consider the rules of the competition which states that I cannot upload it anywhere public while the competition is going on- for fear of disqualification from the competition.

If this were a live brief, I would need to buy Adobe Animate to be able to put the animation all together as well as the paper or graphics tablet to make the frames for the animation.

I have been given a few weeks to make this project, with a deadline that I must keep to. For this- I must get all of the frames done in time and put them in order so that it’s done in time for the deadline. I would have to allow for problems that may come up in my life that prevent me from drawing the frames for the animation.

Posted in Unit 3, Unit 53- 2D & Stop Motion Animation

Timeline of Animation


History of animation

As far back as 3o,000 B.C. there has been signs of trying to show motion- with archaeological artifacts further proving this. Early examples of attempts to capture motion into a drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings- in which animals are typically drawn with multiple legs to show it moving. It’s been claimed that the flickering light of flames can show an illusion of motion in these paintings.

5,200 B.C.

A bronze-age pottery bowl showing goats leaping (Shahr-e Sukhteh, Iran.) The bowl has five continuing images painted around it, showing phases of a goat leaping up at a tree.


1500 A.D.

Leonardo da Vinci’s ‘Vitruvian Man’ drawing shows multiple angles which implies movement. 54d18ad496ddd0e94489455c_davinci_book

With the Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America in the 18th & 19th centuries came experimentation with machines which would make images appear to move. 

These devices were used before animation became motion pictures; and were used to entertain, amaze and even frighten people. The majority of these didn’t project their images- only being able to


A machine called the ‘Magic Lantern’ is an image projector using pictures on sheets of glass. Since some sheets contain moving parts, it’s considered the first example of projected animation. It was created by Christiaan Huygens in 1659.

His sketches for the magic lantern slides have been dated to this year, and are the oldest known document concerning the magic lantern.

One of these sketches shows Death raising his arm from his toes to his head, another shows him moving his right arm up and down from his elbow, and another taking his skull off his neck and placing it back. Dotted lines indicate the movements.




The ‘thaumatrope’ used a rotating mechanism with a different picture on each side. When the strings on each side were twirled quickly, the disks on each side rotated, letting you see a combined picture (known as persistence of vision- the fact that the perception of an object by the eyes and brain continues for a fraction of a second after the view is blocked/ the object is removed).

It is a simple toy which was popular in the 19th century. One of the more popular versions was a bird and a cage, making the image seem as if the bird was stuck in a cage.

Invented by Sir John Herschel,it was popularized in 1824 by John Ayrton Paris when he demonstrated it to the Royal College of Physicians. Many of these devices are still built by and for film students learning the basic principles of animation.


The ‘phenakistoscope’ featured spinning disks reflected in mirrors- making it seem as if the pictures were moving as it spun. It was early animation device, simultaneously invented by the Belgian Joseph Plateau and the Austrian Simon von Stampfer.

As the phenakistoscope spins, a viewer looks through the slots at the reflection of the drawings and are momentarily visible when a slot passes by the viewer’s eye- creating the illusion of animation.



Similarly- the ‘zoetrope’ was a hollow drum which had images on long interchangeable strips that also spun and made the images appear to move.

To use it, the observer looked through vertical slits around the sides to view the moving images. As it spins, the material between the viewing slits moves in the opposite direction of the images on the other side, serving as a simple shutter.

The zoetrope has several advantages over the phenakistoscope- such as not requiring a mirror to view the illusion, and because of its cylindrical shape, it could be viewed by several people at once.


The ‘flip-book’ (also known as the kineograph) reached a wide audience and inspires early animators more than the machines developed in this era as it was simpler and easier to start out with.

John Barnes Linnett patented the first flip book in 1868 as the ‘kineograph’. A flip book is typically a small book with relatively springy pages, each page having a series of animation images located near it’s unbound edge. The user bends back all of the pages- typically with the thumb- and by using a gradual motion of the hand, allows them to spring free one at the time- creating movement.

Unlike other inventions, there was no view-interrupting shutter or mirrors required to view it other than the user’s hand. Early animators used flip books as  


The ‘praxinoscope’ expanded the zoetrope, using multiple wheels to rotate images. It’s considered to have shown the first prototypes of the animated cartoon.

In the early 20th century, the beginnings of theatrical showings of cartoons, especially in the United States and France was shown.

Many animators formed studios, with Bray Studios in New York proved the most successful in this era. Bray helped launch the careers of the cartoonists which created Mighty Mouse, Betty Boop and Woody Woodpecker.  

This period of time was known as ‘The Silent Era’


‘Humorous phases of funny faces’ marks the first entirely animated film which used stop-motion photography to create action.


‘Fantasmagorie’ is the first animated film using hand-drawn animation, and is considered by film historians to be the first animated cartoon.


‘Gertie the dinosaur’ is considered the first cartoon to feature an appealing character.


‘Musical Mews’ and ‘Feline Follies’ introduced ‘Felix the Cat’– often considered the first animated movie star.



‘Steamboat Willie’ featuring Mickey Mouse became the first cartoon with sound printed on the film and is the first notable success for Walt Disney Studios (founded in Los Angeles in 1923).


Walt Disney and his brother Roy co-founded Walt Disney Productions, which became one of the best-known motion-picture production companies in the world.

He was an innovative animator and theme park designs, winning 22 Academy Awards during his lifetime, also being the founder of theme parks ‘Disneyland’ and ‘Walt Disney World’.

Disney and his staff created numerous fictional characters including Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck. In addition to his Academy Awards, he also won 7 Emmy Awards.

Today, there are Disney theme parks around the world, including Tokyo, Paris and Hong Kong.



During what is considered the ‘Golden Age’ of animation, theatrical cartoons became an important and essential part of popular culture. 

These years are defined by the rise of Walt Disney (Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck and Silly Symphonies); Warner Brothers, MGM and Fleischer (Betty Boop, Popeye).



Warner Brothers Cartoons was founded, and created the ‘Merrie Melodies’ series. It was a series of short comedy animated films. It featured some of the most famous cartoon characters such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig and Elmer Fudd.


Walt Disney releases ‘Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs’, the first animated feature film to use hand-drawn animation.

The animation industry began to adapt to the fact that television continued its rise as the entertainment medium of choice for American families- bringing about the ‘Television Era’.

Studios created many cartoons for TV, using a ‘limited animation’ style. By the mid 80s, with help from cable channels such as The Disney Channel and Nickelodeon , cartoons were found everywhere on TV. 


The ‘Yogi Bear’ show- a spin-off of Huckleberry Hound (another Hanna-Barbera production), debuts on national TV.



DePatie-Freleng Enterprises wins the Academy Award for Best Short Film for ‘The PinkPhink’ (of the Pink Panter series) and continues to create short films for theatrical release. giphy1

Additionally in this year, ‘Fritz the Cat’– the first animated adult rated feature film was released. fritz-the-cat-movie-poster

The CGI (Computer generated imagery) revolutionised animation in the ‘Modern Era’. A difference between CGI animation compared to traditional animation is that drawing is replaced by 3D modeling, almost like a virtual version of stop-motion. 

A form of animation that combines the two and uses 2D computer drawing can be considered computer aided animation.


‘The Adventures of Andre and Wally B’ was released, it being the first fully CGI-animated film short.



‘The Simpsons’ was created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. It is the longest-running sitcom, animated program and scripted primetime television series.



‘Toy Story’– the first fully computer-animated feature film was released.



‘Big Hero 6’ is the first Disney animated film to feature Marvel Comics-style characters.


Posted in Unit 3, Unit 53- 2D & Stop Motion Animation

Types of Animation

I made mood-boards to show the different types of animation- including animations that I like in these different categories.

2D Animation-2D Animation Board.jpg

In this board, I used images from (top to bottom, left to right)- ‘Princess and the Frog’, ‘Medical Maladies’, ‘Moribund Malediction’, ‘Death By Glamour- Mettaton vs. Frisk Fight’, X-Ray & Vav’, ‘No Mercy Overwatch Song’, ‘Adventure Time: Fionna and Cake’, ‘Over The Garden Wall’, ‘Understrum’, ‘The Schuyler Sisters- Hamilton animatic’, ‘Yuri!!! On Ice’, ‘Steven Universe’, Beauty and the Beast’ and ‘Hullaballo’.


3D Animation-3D Animation Board.jpg

In this board I’ve used images from (top to bottom- left to right) ‘Moana’, ‘Paperman’, ‘RWBY Volume 4’, ‘Gnomeo & Juliet’, ‘Wreck It Ralph’, ‘Monsters vs Aliens’, ‘Brave’, ‘Expiration Date’, ‘Big Hero 6’, ‘RWBY Volumes 1-3’, ‘Book of life’ and ‘Infiltration- Overwatch Animated Short’.

Stop Motion Animation-Stop Motion Animation.jpg

In this board I’ve used images from (top to bottom- left to right) ‘The Nightmare Before Christmas’, ‘Kubo and the Two Strings’, ‘Paranorman’, ‘Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer’, ‘Wallace and Gromit’, ‘Fantastic Mr. Fox’, ‘Shaun the Sheep’, ‘The Pirates: In an adventure with Scientists’, ‘James and the Giant Peach’. ‘Corpse Bride’, ‘The Box Trolls’ and ‘Coraline’.